I used this exact filter for my old 5.5 gallon betta tank. It is extremely quiet as long as you are able to stop it from vibrating against the tank, which is easily done by either readjusting it or by placing a folded up paper towel between the tank and the filter. The adjustable feature is really nice - the lowest setting is barely a trickle of water coming out, and even getting close to full blast didn't seem to bother my betta (granted he's a PK and therefore a better swimmer - a larger-finned betta may have more problems). The filter comes with a sponge to cover the intake and therefore does a good job of protecting fins. It comes with filter media, one with carbon and one with zeolite - as my tank was planted I opted to get a carbon refill pack and just use the carbon cartridges; however, if I was still using it I'd probably modify them to remove the carbon filling and refill it with plain filter floss. The cartridges are exteremely easy to change and there is very little mess - just remove the lid, slide out the old, and slide in the new. The only issue I had was that it didn't do much to break up the protein film at the water's surface, but I honestly found that to be a very minor issue. If I hadn't decided to split my ten gallon for two bettas, I'd still be using it.
However, I'd probably suggest getting the s15 or s20 for a ten gallon. The s10 was great for a 5.5 gallon, but I don't know if I'd use it for more than that. The s20 only a couple dollars more on Amazon, and it never hurts to overfilter.