Is he new to you?
Even if he is not I can guess this much. Jumping out of the water is his attempt to ESCAPE. "Escape what?" Water quality more than likely.
You said bowl... Did you know 1-2 gallon bowls really need to be cleaned every other day minimum to avoid ammonia? Ammonia is like the bleach we use as a chemical. It would be like swimming in a mixture of water and straight bleach, where your skin and eyes burn, and you'll be prone to infection.
It's the same with our Betta fish. Not only that, but they are tropical. They need heaters, to keep the temperature at 78-80, without fluctuations which can also cause major problems.
My guess for him:
Ammonia poisoning and/or burning, cold, and if his eyes are clouded over he has a bacterial infection.