It can if not treated properly, or in time.
It's hard to tell in that picture whether it's popeye, or just the natural bubble they have around their eyes. If you can get one looking down at him, that would be helpful. He looks like a pretty boy.
Conservative: If the swelling is extreme then use Epsom Salt first. 2 teaspoons of ES per gallon, perform 100% daily water changes. You may be able to treat the popeye with just Epsom and clean water. However, if the swelling goes down but the eyes remain cloudy/white, then switch to Aq. Salt at 1tsp/gal or use medications. Do not combine Aq. Salt with medications but you can continue to use ES during medical treatments. Medication: If ES or Aq. Salt do not do the trick or it is a serious case of popeye, then combine the ES with API Tetracycline, API Fungus Cure, API General Cure, API Triple Sulfa, OR Mardel’s Maracyn.