Red layer (Extended red, Reduced red, Non red, Variegated fins)
The traditional or common red color we see is the classic cherry red, a darker shade of red due to pigments in the black layer.
A brighter shade of red , extended red, has a denser spread of red pigments. One way to achieve this color is by crossing regular red to a cambodian with blond genes.
Cherry Red x Red cambodian with no iridescence = cherry red, cambodian, a lighter shade of red or darker shade of cambodian.
*** Since there aren’t any bettas with true/original genes – the above pair will often produce yellow, orange, cherry red, extended red, and cambodian like colors of different shades. Inbreed the cambodian like color with more red on it either to the same color or to a rather bright red to get extended reds
***Red is partially dominant over all colors in the sense that they will always show red markings, at least on the fins. Like iridescence color, it is difficult to absolutely clean red out of a line.
***Extended red is dominant over normal red
Red loss/reduced red
is a trait seldom, if ever, discussed in this forum and seems to be undesired. It works similarly to the marble gene but only eliminates red pigments, bringing out the black layer. It is dominant over all red except extended.
Non red (Yellow, Orange)
Although non red genes have been identified (nr1, nr2), but for either yellow or orange to apear physically involves a combination of genes. This color is highly recessive towards all colors thus will unlikely show when crossed to other colors.
To achieve this coloration extended red x cambodian (pale body/no iridescence – nr genes) – F2 or F3 should throw some yellow and or orange.
Breeding yellow x yellow or orange x orange will eventually wear the color to a dull shade. To regain it’s intensity, you must breed back to nr2 cambodian and repeat the above.
Dalmation works similarly to marbles in that they are unpredictable. But unlike marbles that are partially dominant, dalmation spotting are dominant affecting most of the batch (Victoria Parnell, bettysplendens).
Dalmation can be achieved from crossing a melano to a yellow. F1 will produce multi colors. F2 will produce only a few dalmation. F3 will produce dominantly dalmations.
“To get dalm. the male gene need to be 100% dalm + a full solid orange female then you will get dalm or a solid orange male + a female with gene 100% dalm = dalm”.
Dalmation male x dalmation female = NO dalmation
100% Dalmation male x solid orange female = dalmation
Opaque and Pastel
Both are from a steel blue line and need the cambodian/non red gene.
* The genetic make up of Opaque White is C Bl Si Nr Op. (full mask white)
* The genetic make up of Pastel is C Bl Si Nr + very slight Op. (not full masked with more iridescence body)
The difference between the two colors is the amount of Op genes present. Pastels only need a small amount of Op factor.
* Opaque/pastel x iridescence = pastel (mostly with more iridescence), irid-cambodian like colors, iridescence
Variegated fins (Butterfly)
This gene is more of a pattern than a color. It causes the end of the fins to be clear or white (sometimes black on melano cariers). This gene is partially dominant over all colors and will produce butterfly patterns for generations.
genes causes unpredictable color changes. Often this “jumping gene” stops when the betta is fully grown but sometimes it continues to a later age.
In earlier cases I’ve seen, marbling causes the color to fade and change into a felshy color leaving only slight dark coloration. But lately I see them change from dark colors to flesh then turn dark again (both regaining the original color or changing into a different darker color)
This gene is partially dominant and will produce marbles for generations.
Cellophane is a clear or fleshy color, often achieved from marble genes. But IME, they can also be produced from the cambodian line.
Was originally a blue-green body with dull yellow fins and blackish butterfly markings. Nowadays the term MG is used for any bi color with yellow fins.
The genetic make up of MG’s is at least Si Bl Nr Vf
Foo Hong suggests that black is one of the genes in the make up.
Was originally a cross between MG and other colors which produced coloration similar to MG. Due to “trade mark” issues, these where then called salamander. Today salamander refers to a multi blue-ish red color which many SE Asians call lavender.
This trait is present in the iridescence layer which is most visible on the green and sometimes steel blue color. Metallic coloration was developed by cross breeding splendens to imbillis (which reflected a different spectrum – yellow to yellow-green (Joep van Esch, in bettaterritory)), smaragdina, and mahachai
Amongst the first popular metallic color was the copper. It’s a steel-grey color that blends to a tint of red, giving it that copper look. Due to the nature of the metallic properties, it often exhibits different colors with different light angles – copper, gold, green.
Genetically, metallic is dominant over normal color.
Full mask is dominant over regular dark head.
Red is partially dominant – will always show on the fins and sometimes on the body.
Copper has the same genetic code as a steel blue but with metallic genes (++). In the first few years of it’s creation; Copper was recessive over iridescence
Copper x green = mostly green (of different shades, both metallic and normal), very few copper and steel blue.
Copper x royal blue = green, steel blue, very few copper.
Copper x red = muti copper with red fins (mostly fully red)
***In the few years of working with copper and green, I have never produced full masking.
Copper has mutated and are now equally dominant.
Copper x green = green (metallic and regular) and copper (fairly equal)
White opaque x copper = platinum, copper, a mixture of both, strays are irid pastel/cambodian like colors, irid colors (both metallic and regular).
*** Keep in mind that copper has been excessively cross bred to different colors. Thus it’s safe to say that there are no longer pure copper genetics. That being said –
Copper x platinum = traditional cambodian (with some iridescence), red cambodian, yellow, solid copper, copper with red fins (red copper), green (mainly multi), both green and copper with yellow fins, pastel like colors
Copper x red cambodian (metallic line) = red copper, gold copper, silverish copper, cambodian (metallic and regular), cambodian-red copper mix, pastel like colors