Kfish has covered everything pretty good, but I wanted to make a couple of thing clearer....with soil based tanks it is really important to start out with enough of the right species of plants...Stem plants are really important-stem plants are generally sold in bunches of 5-12 stem per bunch-usually without roots either rubber band or lead weight together-You need at least 3+ bunches of 3-4 different species of stem plants for a 10gal to start-
About 75% of the floor of the tank needs to be planted with stem plants-you can plant them around the other species of plants and once the tank has matured you can slowly remove or move the stem plants to different areas.
Good stem plants for soil based tanks-naja grass, water wisteria, other hygrophilia species, rotala, ludwigia to name a few that have worked well in my NPT's
You also need floating plants like water lettuce, frogbit or duckweed at least 10%
Lights-it is best to stay in the 5500-7000k area...Daylight 6500k being ideal....the 10k bulb may cause poor plant growth but good algae growth in a soil based tank...
I get my Daylight 6500k bulbs in the lighting dept at walmart, home depot, Lowes for a lot cheaper than in the aquarium shop-You also need to change out the tube every 12 months since intensity is lost with use-you can see the light but the plants can't for photosynthesis.
Photoperiod I would start on 10h/day and increase based on plant to algae growth....With planted tanks its all about balance.....you have to provide the plants with the tools to out compete the algae for lights and nutrients.
Carbon is not needed especially for planted tanks since they can remove important nutrients, minerals that the plants need.
As for filters-I only use filters in my NPT's on start up-then I remove them once the soil is mature and plants growing well in my 10gal and smaller tanks-HOB, canister, sponge all work well-you want to limit to much surface agitation so not to drive off the natural CO2
Amazon swords can get too big for a 10gal-there are several different sword plants that stay smaller that will work well-sorry can't remember the names-also, crypts are a nice rosette plant for small NPT's and you can get different colors-I keep the bronze crypts-they help give the tank more color contrast....
This thread will give you some more info on NPT's
Also, in my album you can find more information and pic on some of my smaller NPT's.....