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I'll do the Q&A part of this first before I try to explain my current situation.
Housing
What size is your tank? My betta has been in a 5 gallon tank for about a year, prior to that he had a cube.
What temperature is your tank? N/A - I've never used a heater because the room is generally always rather warm, and between the room temp and the plant lamp I use for light it keeps the tank water pretty warm (except for at night).
Does your tank have a filter? No.
Does your tank have an air stone or other type of aeration? I recently added an air stone, and I'll run it for about 15mins a day since the fish seems to hate it.
Is your tank heated? Beyond the plant lamp which throws out quite a bit of heat, no.
What tank mates does your betta fish live with? Only live plants.

Food
What type of food do you feed your betta fish? The Top Fin brand Color Enhancing Betta Bits. I've tried other brands, even peas and garlic, and he won't eat them. He won't eat treats either.
How often do you feed your betta fish? I've always fed him twice a day until this recent situation, now I'm lucky if he'll eat one piece of food a day.

Maintenance
How often do you perform a water change? I'll do water changes about twice a month, and a full tank cleaning about once a month.
What percentage of the water do you change when you perform a water change? About 20/25% when I do the twice monthly changes.
What type of additives do you add to the water when you perform a water change? Tap water conditioner.

Water Parameters:
Have you tested your water? If so, what are the following parameters? No, I've never used any test kits during the 3.5 years that I've had this betta nor with any of my previous bettas.

Ammonia:N/A
Nitrite: N/A
Nitrate: N/A
pH: N/A
Hardness: N/A
Alkalinity: N/A

Symptoms and Treatment
How has your betta fish's appearance changed? About a week ago he had a little spot on his lower fin that looked like mold, which fell off soon after it appeared. Then about 1 day ago I noticed another small spot forming on his fin in a different spot of same fin. Today his one eye looks cloudy.
How has your betta fish's behavior changed? A few days prior to noticing the first moldy spot he stopped eating like normal and began hiding. Then he was back to normal for about 2 days, and then suddenly he started hiding again and last night he began behaving in a way that suggested his vision is obstructed or fading. He comes out and swims around in a hyper fashion, sometimes sits on his perch, and then goes and bumps into things before returning to his darkest hiding spot where he spends most of his time.
When did you start noticing the symptoms? I first noticed something was unusual about 2 weeks ago, things improved with treatment for fin rot, and then they suddenly got worse.
Have you started treating your fish? If so, how? I began treating him with Melafix (as directed for fin rot) on Thursday Feb 6th 2014, after the prescribed treatment I cleaned the tank since he was eating and acting normally and added just a 1/2 dose of Melafix, and then when he began acting sick again I resumed full treatment dosage.
Does your fish have any history of being ill? For the 3.5 years I've had him this is the first time he's had any illness or issue.
How old is your fish (approximately): 3.5 years.

I'm not sure if he's getting so sick suddenly due to age, or what could've caused it. There is nothing in his tank that hasn't always been there since his move into the larger tank, the only thing that's slightly new would be another live plant that I added a few weeks ago. This came out of nowhere and I'm terribly afraid for him since I'm at a loss as to what's causing it and what I can do to help him. I've read a lot of articles online about fin rot and other common sicknesses and there were instances where one article said to keep the water at the cooler side and another article that said to keep it warm, so I don't even know what temp I should be trying to achieve. He seemed to improve when the water was warmer, but I don't know if it was due to the temp or not? And now the eye is really freaking me out. Please help!
Thank you for your time.
Eva.
 

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Are you able to provide a picture of his spots? Do they resemble grains of fine sugar sprinkled on his body/face?
When you say bumping things does he pick up speed and ram things or bash his side against his decorations?
 

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A photo would be great. If you can't provide one though:

What color is the 'mold'?
Does it look cottony?
Is the tissue around it healthy, or does it appear infected/diseased?

Does it look anything like the fish below? This fish has a bacterial condition call Columnaris. (The treatment depends on the severity of the condition. In minor/mild cases, clean water and/or aquarium salt may be enough. For more aggressive or severe cases, I suggest using a gram-negative antibiotic, such as one of the Furan medications.)

This fish has Columnaris:

 
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