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I care for my sister's fish every now and again and though she doesn't take that much care of them (this poor baby's fins) she won't let them go. Today, I happened to be looking at the older of the two of them and he looks swelled up like a balloon.

Tail Amphibian

Plate Dishware Platter Fish Feeder fish


That brings my question, is he bloated or could there be something else up with him?

Note: As mentioned above, this is not my fish. This is my sister's fish and what she does with her tanks and fish are against my wishes. If I had the money, I would take these fish from her, but at the moment I cannot afford it. Please don't be too surprised when I mention everything below.

Housing:
How many gallons is your tank? 2 gallons
Does it have a filter? No.
Does it have a heater? No.
What temperature is your tank? Unknown.
Does your tank have an air stone or other type of aeration? No.
Does your Betta have tank mates? What kind? No.

Food:
What food brand do you use? Aqua Culture
Do you feed flakes or pellets? Pellets
How often do you feed your Betta? How much? Once a day; a small amount of pellets.

The food mentioned above will be changed to TetraMin flakes due to me taking notice that his pellets were three years out of date.

Maintenance:
Before your Betta became ill how often did you perform a water change? Once a month.
What percentage of water did you change? 100%
What additives do you use? Aquarium salt, Stress coat, and water conditioner.

Symptoms and Treatment:
When did you first notice the symptoms? Earlier today
How has your Betta’s appearance changed? He's swelled up like a balloon.
How has your Betta’s behavior changed? He's struggling a little bit with swimming, but besides that he's fine.
Is your Betta still eating? Due to his food being missing from this morning, I assume so.
Have you started treating your Betta? If so, how? I have not began treatment.
Does your Betta have any history of being ill? He's previously had fin rot, which I nursed most of the way.
How long have you owned your Betta? Was he or she ill or suffering some sort of damage when purchased? He was purchased in May of 2015 and did not have any damage.
 

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Before your Betta became ill how often did you perform a water change? Once a month.
With a 2 gallon you should be changing 50% of the water every 3 or 4 days.

The food mentioned above will be changed to TetraMin flakes due to me taking notice that his pellets were three years out of date.
Throw it in the bin and get fresh food.

Aquarium salt,
Bettas are fresh water fish, and contrary to popular opinion do not need salt in the aquarium, In fact it can be harmful.
Salt FW Aq Art Hosking

Salt as a preventative is useless and dangerous. Soft water fish are affected by salt, some more than others. Hard water species such as livebearers tend to tolerate salt better. But except for specific treatment of a disease where salt is the best option (like ich, velvet, etc) it is best not to add salt to a freshwater fish aquarium. The so-called "preventative" levels sometimes suggested are completely useless, which makes the use of salt--which can and will debilitate many freshwater fish--pointless.
Stress coat,
This stuff is not needed.
Lots of clean warm water is all you need.

My advice would be to stop feeding the fish for 2 or 3 days see if the swelling goes down and get fresh pellets, Atisons Betta Food or Pro, Dianichi Discus FX are good.
 

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Give him an epsom salt bath, (aquarium salt will only make the problem worse) and if you can, try and do a WC at least once a week. I know he isn't yours, but maybe your sister will be fine with you doing WC as long as she doesn't have to do it?
 
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