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the bioload in your 1 gallon is too large.

remove the ramshorn as soon as you can as well as the ghost shrimp.

It sounds more like he's stressed from cramped living space and constant water changes. 50% every day is very stressful, which could open him up for disease.

A 1 gallon with just a betta should be changed at least 100% once a week and a 50% in between. there is such a thing as water that is too clean since the betta will not have the correct immune response if it's never experienced bacteria and mild disease in the water.
 

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He may not have parasites at all. His reaction could have been purely out of stress and discomfort.

For now, just let him be with less water changes so he can recover from the stress. If he's still displaying the head twitching after a few days have passed, then look into a method of treatment.

Often clean water is enough to boost the immune system into taking care of the issue.
 

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Velvet does not appear as grey. It's a gold dust covering slightly finer than ick. I don't think he has it at all.

Ick might be a possibility, but you'd still need to get a heater for effective and quick treatment and quarantine either him or the shrimp since the shrimp cannot handle the medication or alternative treatment.

Ick is only vulnerable when it's free swimming in the water, which is after the parents have dropped off the fish, reproduced, and the eggs hatched. To treat in room temperature water instead of 80 degrees can take up to 2 weeks or more.

The white spot can be natural coloring. I have a male with a black face that has 1 white spot that never goes away. It looks exactly like ick, but he's been treated for it before and displays no other signs of having the parasite.

The white circles around his eyes can also be natural. they seem to be more common or easier to see in bettas with darker faces. My boy with the black face has white rings around his eyes as well.
 
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