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Look up, or even better, join IBC. Personally, I find their pages rather tricky to go through, but its there.Betta territory is another site you can learn from.

If you look at close up pictures of betta's fins namely caudal, you can see lines. These are the fin's bone structure - the rays. From the end of the body, each ray will branch, and each of which will branch further. . . .if one initial ray becomes 4 at the end of the caudal, its a 4 ray. 8 rays means 1 will branch into 8 at the end. . . . And so on.
**** Its difficult to spot rays on live, moving bettas. You need a close up side view of them flaring to see their rays.
 

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Super Moderator
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Tbh, I've never read the IBC standard . . . I looked through it once and thought I'd read it later. But could never find it again. Try betta territory. It's close to IBC standards, and shows ilustrations of what is meant.

In general, it's all about balance. HM is supposed to form a half circle when fully flared. All fins must be same length. Ideally, dorsal and anal should lean forward with long front rays. Caudal should look like "D".

Pattern should also be balanced (don't fully understand the details) - either 1 solid color all over body and fins (except head that are naturally blackish on regular colors - non metallic) . . . Or show balanced/equal pattern. For example: butterfly should have 50-50 color bands - preferably on all fins. Koi/fancy should show same pattern on both sides. . . . Etc.

Sorry, don't have pictures to help you better understand.
 
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