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So I'm very new at fish keeping. And I've never noticed this issue before so idk if it's normal or not but can someone please explain what the hell this is. No matter how much I vacuumed the gravel or do water changes it always is just lingering. This is literally right after a 50 percent water change. Sometimes my betta even eats it! Is it harmful? It's little pieces of food I think with the white fuzzies. Looks like a dandelion
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Most fungus in the aquarium are harmless and are always present naturally, they usually only pose a problem if your betta has some sort of open wound for them to "attack". That's because molds & fungi typically only consume stuff that's already dead, so it's very rare for them to directly infect a fish.

That said, they aren't great to have in large enough amounts that you're seeing fuzz all the time, because they often point out problems like too much detritus, and if they "take over" an entire tank it can lower water quality leading to illness. You betta will most likely not be harmed by eating a bit, but it's better not to give him the chance if you can help it.

In your case it's most likely exactly what it looks like to you: leftover food flakes that have gone "off". In my opinion, if you constantly have leftover food falling to the bottom of the tank, you may either be overfeeding or feeding too quickly for your betta to get it all. So I encourage you to examine your feeding habits closely.

You can use a (new, clean) turkey baster as precision tool to suck up any pieces you see now, and in the future clean up uneaten food after you've fed your betta. Or if you have some airline tubing, you can use that as a siphon for spot-cleaning since it generates strong suction but doesn't remove a lot of water at once, which is helpful when cleaning a small tank.
 
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