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Housing:
How many gallons is your tank? 5 gallons
Does it have a filter? Yes
Does it have a heater? Yes
What temperature is your tank? 78-79˚F
Does your tank have an air stone or other type of aeration? No
Does your Betta have tank mates? What kind? No.

Food:
What food brand do you use? Omega One
Do you feed flakes or pellets? flakes
Freeze-dried? never
How often do you feed your Betta? How much? I feed him twice a day; 2-3 tiny flakes at each feeding.

Maintenance:
Before your Betta became ill how often did you perform a water change? 1-2 times a week
What percentage of water did you change? Either 25% or 50% depending on the amount of time in between changes
What is the source of your water? Tap water
Do you vacuum the substrate or just dip out water? Vacuum
What additives do you use? What brand of conditioner? I use Seachem Prime.

Water Parameters: What are your water parameters?
Ammonia: 0.25ppm
Nitrite: 0ppm
Nitrate:0ppm
pH: 6
Hardness (GH): 0
Alkalinity (KH): 0

Symptoms and Treatment:
When did you first notice the symptoms? Today
How has your Betta’s appearance changed? His right eye has something protruding from it. It is light blue in color, and looks as though it has attached to his eye ball. The base of his eye is not swollen, however. On another note, I also want to mention that the tips of his fin have what appear to be anchor worms, according to some images I've researched.
How has your Betta’s behavior changed? He is behaving like his usual curious and active self.
Is your Betta still eating? Yes
Have you started treating your Betta? If so, how? No
Does your Betta have any history of being ill? Yes; he has had an ongoing battle with fin rot ever since last September.
How long have you owned your Betta? Since September 14, 2019, so nearly five months.
Was he or she ill or suffering some sort of damage when purchased? No

I have provided pictures below of my fish's eye, of his tank, and of his fin. I suspect that his tail may have anchor worms, but I'm not sure. Any help will be greatly appreciated!
 

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I had the same thing happen to one of my bettas, and it was incredibly difficult to find answers. What it turned out to be in my case was- the betta had scratched her eye, damaging the cornea (clear outer layer), and the white "stuff" was pus the wound produced as it healed. I kept her water clean and used Triple Sulfa medicine, and it healed up in about two weeks with no lasting damage- once the gunk was gone, her eye was perfectly fine underneath and she didn't have any blindness or trouble seeing.

It's pretty unlikely that your betta has anchor worms on the ends of his fins- they usually attach to the body, and these white spots look fuzzy to me anyway. Most likely it's also a bacterial infection that started developing as his immune system was busy fighting off the eye infection.

What I would do is get Triple Sulfa or Marycyn II, both of which are broad-spectrum antibiotics. Take out any carbon that's in your filter, change out 90% of his water (or however much you can change while still leaving him in the tank), and then treat the tank according to the package's directions (you may have to do some math, since most meds assume you are dosing a 10g tank).


And as a general note, your tank is pretty bare so I'd also encourage you to add some more plants (fake are perfectly fine), since bettas like having a lot of "stuff" in their tank to swim around/hide in and it will help him feel more at ease, which speeds recovery time. Optional, but something to think about. :)
 
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