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Housing:
How many gallons is your tank? 20 gallons.
Does it have a filter? Yes, only 10 gallons but I will be upgrading soon.
Does it have a heater? Yes.
What temperature is your tank? 75-76 degrees Fahrenheit.
Does your tank have an air stone or other type of aeration? Yes, but I only turn it on at night.
Does your Betta have tank mates? What kind? Yes, five neon tetras, one ghost shrimp, one nerite snail. I also have a rosette sword plant and a temple plant if that's of note.

Food:
What food brand do you use? Aqueon and Tetra.
Do you feed flakes or pellets? I feed him one pellet each morning and then he eats one or two flakes I give the other fish. I fast them on Sundays.
Freeze-dried? No.

Maintenance:
Before your Betta became ill how often did you perform a water change? Once a week.
What percentage of water did you change? 1/4
Do you vacuum the substrate or just dip out water? I vacuum the gravel substrate.
What additives do you use? API Stress Coat

Water Parameters:

Ammonia: 0
Nitrite: 0
Nitrate: 0
pH: 7.8

Symptoms and Treatment:
When did you first notice the symptoms? Off and on with symptoms usually happening every 2.5 weeks.
How has your Betta’s appearance changed? His fins are showing rot symptoms and he has a large pinkish-white patch on his back.
How has your Betta’s behavior changed? No change.
Is your Betta still eating? Yes.
Have you started treating your Betta? If so, how? Not yet, wanted advice first. Before I would treat him in a salt bath for a week with tetracycline for the last four days.
Does your Betta have any history of being ill? Yes.
How long have you owned your Betta? Was he or she a rescue? Four months, the fish store where I bought him keeps the bettas in small containers but the water inside is kept clean.


Okay, now that that's out of the way: The betta, neon tetras, and shrimp all used to live together in a 6.5 gallon. (I got the snail after upgrading.) They lived this way for about 2.5 months. Then I bought a test kit. The ammonia came up at 8.0 or higher. To make a long story short I have now upgraded to a 20 gallon. Everyone has plenty of room now and the tank is fully cycled. The problem is is my betta keeps contracting fin rot and sometimes a large pinkish-white patch on his back. What keeps causing this, and how do I prevent it in the future? Or have I ruined him forever for being under so much ammonia for so much time? None of the other fish have any problems, and are in fact thriving. I just put in a piece of mopani driftwood, but I can't blame that because the fin rot thing has happened prior. I'm sorry I didn't include pictures, I'll get them as soon as I can get my camera to charge.
 

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What temperature is your tank? 75-76 degrees Fahrenheit.
This is on the cool side for a betta, I would bump it up to 80F

Do you feed flakes or pellets? I feed him one pellet each morning and then he eats one or two flakes I give the other fish
The Betta is under fed, also the food you are giving him is at best questionable.
I feed my Betta 2 New Life spectrum pellets in the morning 2 at night 7 days a week, She also gets a range of fresh live and frozen food.

Ammonia: 0
Nitrite: 0
Nitrate: 0
Since you have a test kit can you please give us the numbers.

Fin rot is a direct result of poor water conditions.

A photo would also help.
 

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I agree that the temp could be a little higher at least 78 and upgrading the food. Have ever treated the betta continuously in a hospital tank separately (10 days for stubborn cases) ? If you did that with something like Paraguard which treats many external problems you might see improvement. While you're doing that bump your water changes on the other tank. When you say 1/4 water change how many gallons is that? You could add a sponge filter and have your 10 gallon filter at the other end of the tank. I do this with my 20 long it improves the circulation and filtering. The sponge filter will work with your air pump and can be run all of the time and it's cheap there are several on Amazon for $5.00 or less. You probably won't need to buy another filter after the addition of the sponge filter with your current filter. You can also add some floating plants for more ammonia and nitrate absorption. Duckweed is kind of pain but it helps and it's usually easy to get someone to send you some for very little or free. If you can afford it look at other floaters.
 

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You can still get organics and viruses bacteria that build up in the tank and if your betta has never been quite cured this fin rot can hang around and come back. The spike in the tank would have been hard on his immune system also.

Most people would tell you to skip carbon filtration but I think you might try it for awhile and clean the tank more often and treat your betta. This guy is considered to be an expert and I was surprised when I read this article but I think it has some merit especially since you feel you've tried hard to improve conditions:

http://www.drtimsaquatics.com/resources/library-presentations/aquarium-hobby/activated-carbon

I would
Treat your betta in a hospital tank
add fresh carbon to reduce DOC (organics and other substances that it addresses)
(I am quite sure many people will say this not needed but if they read the article and focus on the Dissolved Organics part of it they could see it might help it surely won't hurt)
Increase water changes for a short time
Scrub the the walls of your tank if you have a sick fish viruses and bacteria can stick to the walls of the tank and perpetuate. Vacumn afterward to suck it up. If there should be plenty of beneficial bacterial in your filter and on your gravel to allow you to clean the walls.

Position a sponge filter at one end and your other filter at the other end for better cleaning and circulation.
Add some floating plants assuming your have some lighting that supports plants. BTW check your plants sometime they can be rotting and it affects water quality.
 
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